新闻搜索
文章正文
Guidance for Industry Sterile Drug Products Produced by Aseptic Processing — Current Good Manufacturing Practice
作者:管理员    发布于:2014-10-02 23:32:33    文字:【】【】【

 

 Guidance for Industry

Sterile Drug Products

Produced by Aseptic Processing —

Current Good Manufacturing Practice

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Food and Drug Administration

Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Office of Regulatory Affairs (ORA)

September 2004

Pharmaceutical CGMPs

Guidance for Industry

Sterile Drug Products

Produced by Aseptic Processing — Current Good Manufacturing Practice

Additional copies are available from:

Office of Training and Communication

Division of Drug Information, HFD-240

Center for Drug Evaluation and Research

Food and Drug Administration

5600 Fishers Lane

Rockville, MD 20857

(Tel) 301-827-4573

http://www.fda.gov/cder/guidance/index.htm

or

Office of Communication, Training and

Manufacturers Assistance, HFM-40

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research

Food and Drug Administration

1401 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852-1448

http://www.fda.gov/cber/guidelines.htm.

(Tel) Voice Information System at 800-835-4709 or 301-827-1800

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Food and Drug Administration

Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Office of Regulatory affairs (ORA)

September 2004

Pharmaceutical CGMPs Contains Nonbinding Recommendations

Guidance for Industry1

Sterile Drug Products Produced by

Aseptic Processing — Current Good Manufacturing Practice

This guidance represents the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) current thinking on this topic. It does not create or confer any rights for or on any person and does not operate to bind FDA or the public. You can use an alternative approach if the approach satisfies the requirements of the applicable statutes and regulations. If you want to discuss an alternative approach, contact the FDA staff responsible for implementing this guidance. If you cannot identify the appropriate FDA staff, call the appropriate number listed on the title page of this guidance.

I. INTRODUCTION

 

This guidance is intended to help manufacturers meet the requirements in the Agency's current good manufacturing practice (CGMP) regulations (2l CFR parts 210 and 211) when manufacturing sterile drug and biological products using aseptic processing. This guidance replaces the 1987 Industry Guideline on Sterile Drug Products Produced by Aseptic Processing (Aseptic Processing Guideline). This revision updates and clarifies the 1987 guidance.

For sterile drug products subject to a new or abbreviated drug application (NDA or ANDA) or a biologic license application (BLA), this guidance document should be read in conjunction with the guidance on the content of sterile drug applications entitled Guideline for the Submission of Documentation for Sterilization Process Validation in Applications for Human and Veterinary Drug Products (Submission Guidance). The Submission Guidance describes the types of information and data that should be included in drug applications to demonstrate the efficacy of a manufacturer's sterilization process. This guidance compliments the Submission Guidance by describing procedures and practices that will help enable a sterile drug manufacturing facility to meet CGMP requirements relating, for example, to facility design, equipment suitability, process validation, and quality control.

FDA's guidance documents, including this guidance, do not establish legally enforceable responsibilities. Instead, guidances describe the Agency's current thinking on a topic and should be viewed only as recommendations, unless specific regulatory or statutory requirements are cited. The use of the word should in Agency guidances means that something is suggested or recommended, but not required.

1 This guidance was developed by the Office of Compliance in the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) in cooperation with the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) and the Office of Regulatory Affairs (ORA).

1 Contains Nonbinding Recommendations

The text boxes included in this guidance include specific sections of parts 210 and 211 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), which address current good manufacturing practice for drugs. The intent of including these quotes in the text boxes is to aid the reader by providing a portion of an applicable regulation being addressed in the guidance. The quotes included in the text boxes are not intended to be exhaustive. Readers of this document should reference the complete CFR to ensure that they have complied, in full, with all relevant sections of the regulations.

II. BACKGROUND

This section describes briefly both the regulatory and technical reasons why the Agency is developing this guidance document.

A. Regulatory Framework

This guidance pertains to current good manufacturing practice (CGMP) regulations (21 CFR parts 210 and 211) when manufacturing sterile drug and biological products using aseptic processing. Although the focus of this guidance is on CGMPs in 21 CFR 210 and 211, supplementary requirements for biological products are in 21 CFR 600-680. For biological products regulated under 21 CFR parts 600 through 680, §§ 210.2(a) and 211.1(b) provide that where it is impossible to comply with the applicable regulations in both parts 600 through 680 and parts 210 and 211, the regulation specifically applicable to the drug product in question shall supercede the more general regulations.

B. Technical Framework

There are basic differences between the production of sterile drug products using aseptic processing and production using terminal sterilization.

Terminal sterilization usually involves filling and sealing product containers under high-quality environmental conditions. Products are filled and sealed in this type of environment to minimize the microbial and particulate content of the in-process product and to help ensure that the subsequent sterilization process is successful. In most cases, the product, container, and closure have low bioburden, but they are not sterile. The product in its final container is then subjected to a sterilization process such as heat or irradiation.

In an aseptic process, the drug product, container, and closure are first subjected to sterilization methods separately, as appropriate, and then brought together.2 Because there is no process to sterilize the product in its final container, it is critical that containers be filled and sealed in an extremely high-quality environment. Aseptic processing involves more variables than terminal sterilization. Before aseptic assembly into a final product, the individual parts of the final product

2 Due to their nature, certain products are aseptically processed at an earlier stage in the process, or in their entirety. Cellular therapy products are an example. All components and excipients for these products are rendered sterile, and release of the final product is contingent on determination of sterility. See Appendix III.

2 Contains Nonbinding Recommendations

are generally subjected to various sterilization processes. For example, glass containers are subjected to dry heat; rubber closures are subjected to moist heat; and liquid dosage forms are subjected to filtration. Each of these manufacturing processes requires validation and control. Each process could introduce an error that ultimately could lead to the distribution of a contaminated product. Any manual or mechanical manipulation of the sterilized drug, components, containers, or closures prior to or during aseptic assembly poses the risk of contamination and thus necessitates careful control. A terminally sterilized drug product, on the other hand, undergoes final sterilization in a sealed container, thus limiting the possibility of error.3

Sterile drug manufacturers should have a keen awareness of the public health implications of distributing a nonsterile product. Poor CGMP conditions at a manufacturing facility can ultimately pose a life-threatening health risk to a patient.

III. SCOPE

This guidance document discusses selected issues and does not address all aspects of aseptic processing. For example, the guidance addresses primarily finished drug product CGMP issues while only limited information is provided regarding upstream bulk processing steps. This guidance updates the 1987 Aseptic Processing Guideline primarily with respect to personnel qualification, cleanroom design, process design, quality control, environmental monitoring, and review of production records. The use of isolators for aseptic processing is also discussed.

Although this guidance document discusses CGMP issues relating to the sterilization of components, containers, and closures, terminal sterilization of drug products is not addressed. It is a well-accepted principle that sterile drugs should be manufactured using aseptic processing only when terminal sterilization is not feasible. However, some final packaging may afford some unique and substantial advantage (e.g., some dual-chamber syringes) that would not be possible if terminal sterilization were employed. In such cases, a manufacturer can explore the option of adding adjunct processing steps to increase the level of sterility assurance.

A list of references that may be of value to the reader is included at the conclusion of this document.

3 Nearly all drugs recalled due to nonsterility or lack of sterility assurance in the period spanning 1980-2000 were produced via aseptic processing.

3 Contains Nonbinding Recommendations

IV. BUILDINGS AND FACILITIES 21 CFR 211.42(b) states, in part, that “The flow of components, drug product containers, closures, labeling, in-process materials, and drug products through the building or buildings shall be designed to prevent contamination.”

21 CFR 211.42(c) states, in part, that “Operations shall be performed within specifically defined areas of adequate size. There shall be separate or defined areas or such other control systems for the firm’s operations as are necessary to prevent contamination or mixups during the course of the following procedures: * * * (10) Aseptic processing, which includes as appropriate: (i) Floors, walls, and ceilings of smooth, hard surfaces that are easily cleanable; (ii) Temperature and humidity controls; (iii) An air supply filtered through high-efficiency particulate air filters under positive pressure, regardless of whether flow is laminar or nonlaminar; (iv) A system for monitoring environmental conditions; (v) A system for cleaning and disinfecting the room and equipment to produce aseptic conditions; (vi) A system for maintaining any equipment used to control the aseptic conditions.”

21 CFR 211.46(b) states that “Equipment for adequate control over air pressure, micro-organisms, dust, humidity, and temperature shall be provided when appropriate for the manufacture, processing, packing, or holding of a drug product.”

21 CFR 211.46(c) states, in part, that “Air filtration systems, including prefilters and particulate matter air filters, shall be used when appropriate on air supplies to production areas * * *.”

21 CFR 211.63 states that “Equipment used in the manufacture, processing, packing, or holding of a drug product shall be of appropriate design, adequate size, and suitably located to facilitate operations for its intended use and for its cleaning and maintenance.”

21 CFR 211.65(a) states that “Equipment shall be constructed so that surfaces that contact components, in-process materials, or drug products shall not be reactive, additive, or absorptive so as to alter the safety, identity, strength, quality, or purity of the drug product beyond the official or other established requirements.”

21 CFR 211.67(a) states that “Equipment and utensils shall be cleaned, maintained, and sanitized at appropriate intervals to prevent malfunctions or contamination that would alter the safety, identity, strength, quality, or purity of the drug product beyond the official or other established requirements.”

21 CFR 211.113(b) states that “Appropriate written procedures, designed to prevent microbiological contamination of drug products purporting to be sterile, shall be established and followed. Such procedures shall include validation of any sterilization process.”

 

脚注信息
版权所有 Copyright(C)2014-2024 币安交易所app下载            备案号:辽ICP备14013852号-1